Cognitive Development Theory

Di sini, aku ingin berkongsi ttg Teori Perkembangan Kognitif dari Jean Piaget. Apa yg aku pelajari dahulu, ada 4 jenis perkembangan dari Jean Piaget. JIKA tidak dituruti dgn betul akan mengakibatkan perkembangan kognitif (dlm otak) seseorg itu tidak sempurna. Bukan bermakna seseorang tu akan jadi gila, cuma mungkin tahap kesempurnaan / NIRWANA diri seseorg tidak dicapai dgn jitu.

Pembelajaran manusia bermula dari peringkat janin yg mana sel telahpun terbentuk. Sebab itu kita digalakkan agar memberi pembelajaran secara tidak langsung dari peringkat janin sprt mendengarkan musik sentimental @ utk yg beragama Islam bolehlah diperdengarkan Al-Quran. InsyaAllah anak yg dilahirkan akan menjadi bijak & aktif.

Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist (1896-1980) and philosopher earned global recognition and fame via his profound pedagogical studies (instructional theories). He was the first one to formulate the theory of cognitive development. After decades of keen observation of children in their natural environments, Piaget proposed that a child’s thought development is not a smooth process, but involves certain times when the thoughts ‘take off’ and move into completely new areas. His observations revealed that such transitions took place at different periods of a child’s life, for example around 18 months, 7 years and 11 or 12 years.

Sensorimotor Period (from birth – 2 years)

Once upon a time, people were of the school of thought that infants lacked the ability to think or form ideas of their own until they learned a language. However, today that thought has been replaced by the fact that babies begin to absorb data about their surroundings, process it into information as soon as they are born. According to Piaget, a child’s cognitive behavior is demonstrated via only motor activities during the first two years of his life.

From sucking objects in their mouth and following moving objects with their eyes during the first 6 weeks of their life, babies enter the development stage. Slowly, they develop their motor skills and learn to grasp objects by coordinating hand-eye – touch vision co-ordination. By 7 months, the baby attain the ability to memorize and acquire object permanence. They also develop new intellectual abilities due to their physical development and even begin to use a symbolic language to communicate.

Dlm konteks psikologi, jika bayi yg tlh dilahirkan tlh terbentuk neuron2 / cambahan dlm otak mereka. Neuron2 (bertindak sbg motor otak) ini tidak akan tumbuh lagi setelah bayi dilahirkan tetapi, neuron ini akan bercambah melalui pengalaman yg didapati. Sbb itu sbg ibubapa digalakkan agar memberi pengalaman kpd bayi mereka.

Sbg cth, bolehlah baringkan bayi anda di atas karpet (pengalaman rasa kasar), atas sofa / tilam (pengalaman rasa lembut), atas lantai (pengalaman rasa licin / sejuk). Melalui rasa inilah akan jadi satu pengalaman kpd bayi. Mungkin dlm masy Melayu tidak sesuai dgn keadaan begini. Namun, harus diakui bhw melalui pembelajaran secara tidak langsung ini akan memberikan pengalaman seterusnya bayi anda akan menjadi aktif…

Jika anak2 telah pandai berjalan @ ada mainan sendiri, biarkan rumah anda bersepah dgn mainan. Krn pd peringkat ini, mereka sedang berusaha membentuk sikap kreatif dlm diri mereka sendiri. Jika mereka tlh penat bermain, ibubapa boleh ajart mereka cara2 mengemas mainan. Biasanya, anak perempuan lebih memahami situasi ini berbanding anak lelaki. Bukan krn anak perempuan itu lebih bijak, tetapi otak anak perempuan lebih cenderung kpd sikap memerhati & mempelajari. Anak lelaki pd usia begini otaknya lebih fokus kpd energatic / membentuk keupayaan tenaga.

Preoperative Period (2 to 6/7 years)

Piaget observed that after two years, the toddler’s intelligence is demonstrated by the use of symbols, maturing use of language and better memory and imaginative development. However, thinking is done is an illogical and irreversible manner. As two year olds, they learn to understand 100 – 150 words and begin to add ten new words to their vocabulary everyday. As they grow older, they begin to comprehend what emotions such as love, trust and fear are. They also understand what it means to go for a ride, go to places for a holiday and carry out routine aspects of life like shopping, reading, writing, etc. However, as they continue to grow older, they become egocentric and begin to strive for more independence, which intimidates parents 90% of the time. By the age of 7, they would have tested their parents thoroughly to find unspoken limits. They learn which behaviors are appropriate and which are not. They gain understanding of what discipline is and learn what manners are. They also learn how to respect limits and work within them.

Perkembangan kognitif peringkat ini berhubungkait dgn thp sensori motor. Pd peringkat ini kanak2 akan mula mengenali sekeliling. Kanak2 akan mula memahami perasaannya sendiri & bertindak sesukahati. Pd peringkat ini juga ibubapa boleh mula mengajar ttg baik & buruknya perilaku yg ditonjolkannya. Tetapi, utk mengajar kanak2 peringkat ini tidak boleh dgn paksaan / kaedah memukul.

Sbg cth : ibubapa boleh nyatakan tindakan yg tidak betul. Ibubapa bolehlah memberi peringatan bhw jika kanak2 itu membuat tindakan yg salah sekali lagi akan dikenakan denda. Jika kanak2 melakukan tindakan yg betul bolehlah diberi upah (reward). Dlm thp ini tlh ada sikap ego dlm diri kanak2 & mereka juga telah tahu manipulasi keadaan. Ibubapa perlu lebih memahami isi hati anak2 sendiri.

Concrete Operations (6/7 to 11/12 years)

This stage can be attributed by the use of logic and involves different processes such as development of abilities to sort objects on the basis of size, shape, etc. They are also able to comprehend the logical relationships between elements in serial order and have a better understanding of time and space. The child is able to realize how a short but wide cup contains the same amount of liquid like a narrow tall cup. They also learn to view things from another perspective, even if it’s not right. They are now able to understand more than one perspective simultaneously. They understand how to solve problems, however, their ability to solve abstract problems are limited.

Pd tahap ini kanak2 lebih kpd tahap kematangan dlm diri sendiri. Mereka lebih cenderung utk mengenali siapa dirinya sendiri sprt kesukaan, ketidakselesaan dll. Biasanya, jika anak yg sulung (ada adik2 di bwhnya) akan lebih cenderung utk bersifat dewasa / menjadi ketua. Jika anak tunggal mungkin akan lebih bersikap manja dan tahap keupayaan utk menyelesaikan sesuatu konflik kadang2 agak sukar.

Dlm konteks begini, ibubapa perlu lebih bersikap keterbukaan kpd kanak2. Dlm masy melayu byk pantang larang yg tidak boleh diajar kpd kanak2 cth : perkembangan seks. Sedangkan dlm tahap umur begini kanak2 lebih cenderung mengenali lawan jantina dgn mereka. Ibubapa bolehlah menerangkan dgn serba sedikit mengapa begitu terjadi. Terangkan juga akibat yg berlaku jika seorang lelaki & perempuan bersama.

Walaupun tahap pemikiran mereka belum melangkau lebih jauh, sekurang-kurangnya dgn penerangan serba sedikit ttg situasi & keadaan semasa, kanak2 akan mula berfikir secara logik peristiwa tersebut. Dlm waktu umur begini juga mereka akan mudah terlibat dlm konflik jatuh cinta… Sbg ibubapa jgn biarkan anak2 merasa rendah diri bila ada kwn2 mengejek anak2 anda tidak cantik dsbnya. Sebaliknya, berilah mereka kata2 perangsang agar mereka dpt meningkatkan tahap ego dlm diri mereka.

Formal Operations (11/12 to adulthood)

Children in this stage are capable of thinking logically and abstractly. This ultimate stage of development in Piaget’s cognitive development theory begins at the age of 12 and continues way into adulthood. The child begins to think logically and formally. The limitation to abstract thinking vanishes and the child can now extend his or her understanding to a level beyond visible events. Hypothetical thinking and use of logic to solve problems comes into play in this stage. Piaget continues to put forth that although children continue to revise their knowledge base as they grow, their way of thinking is as powerful as it can get. As young adults, they begin to think about their future and get fascinated about what they can grow to become.

This was Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory. However, various other prominent psychologists such as L. Vygotsky, Erik Erikson, Gesell and Spock, have also given such theories which have gained popularity. While Gessel and Piaget focused more on motor and intellectual development, the Spock and Erikson focused on emotional development in children. They also differ in their stress upon the importance of individual difference among children. Contemporary theorists argue that the cognitive development in children cannot be split up into fixed stages. They say that children are not always confined to concrete fixed stages.

Melalui tahap ini, kawalan kpd anak2 agak sukar krn anak2 semakin meningkat dewasa. Mereka mudah terjebak dgn rakan sebaya biasanya. Sbg ibubapa perlulah ada kawalan bertingkat kpd anak2. Dgn erti kata lain, kawalan tersebut bukanlah disekat keseluruhan tindakan anak2 sebaliknya berilah kebebasan kpd anak2 tetapi dgn cara berhemah.

Dlm peringkat ini, anak2 akan mudah merasa kecewa krn mereka telah dpt memahami dgn jelasnya keadaan dirinya sendiri tidak sama dgn org lain. Bagi anak2 yg punya segalanya akan mudah berasa bongkak apabila melihat dirinya lebih hebat dari org lain. Ibubapa perlu berhati2 apabila bermain perasaan dgn anak2 pada tahap umur begini. Ini kerana, mereka lebih memahami konteks budaya rakan sebaya mereka berbanding ibubapa / keluarga.

Pd peringkat ini juga anak2 mudah utk  mencuba perkara baru krn mereka baru shj mengenali dunia sebenar. Jgn biarkan anak anda terlalu bebas tanpa pantauan krn mereka akan mudah terpesong jauh tanpa batasan. Ibubapa perlu menjadi rakan karib kpd anak2 pd peringkat ini. Krn anak2 memerlukan teman karib yg sgt memahami perasaan mereka ketika ini. Mungkin anda boleh bercerita kpd anak2 anda pengalaman yg anda ada ketika tahap umur sama mereka.


As sweet and musical
As bright Apollo’s lute, strung with his hair;
And when Love speaks, the voice of all the gods
Makes heaven drowsy with the harmony.

~William Shakespeare~